Welsh words which appear as names on the F.R. (not an exhaustive list)
Firstly a few words of explanation.
It should be remembered that under certain circumstances Welsh words can mutate; i.e. the initial consonant can change to another specific letter. There are actually 3 types of mutation in the language, but only the soft mutation need be considered here.
The most common causes of soft mutation in place names are;
- in a compound word (two words put together) the second will invariably mutate.
Many place names consist of several words (e.g. Tanygrisiau, Glan-y-pwll) but the hyphen is not actually native to Welsh - it was introduced by the English in order to make pronunciation easier.
- feminine nouns mutate after 'y' (the). NB - The "y" may subsequently have been dropped, but often the mutation remains, e.g. (y) Fron Goch, (y) Dduallt
- a feminine noun will cause a subsequent adjective to mutate
- where an adjective comes before a noun (more common historically) it will invariably cause a mutation.
For information, the 9 letters which soft mutate are as follows
b > f c > g d > dd g > _ ll > l m > f p > b rh > r t > d
|allt / gallt||hill|
|bach / fach||small, (in place names) Minor|
|bagl||shepherd’s crook, crutch|
|blaenau||high inaccessible place*|
|bod||in place names: residence of, place of|
|bron||small rounded hill, breast|
|cigfran / gigfran||raven|
|coch / goch||red|
|cysgfa||sleeping place (from cysgu ”to sleep”)|
|dau / dwy / deu||two|
|duffws (diffws etc.)||steep slope|
|dinas (male noun)||fort, fortified place|
|dinas (female noun)||city|
|du / ddu||black|
|ewig (> wiog)||hind|
|ffestin, ffestiniog||fortification, fortifications|
|gallt / allt||hill|
|llan||originally church enclosure, now more like parish|
|llwyd (anglicised lloyd)||grey|
|mawr / fawr||big, (in place names) Major|
|offeryn (offeren)||tool, instrument|
|pant / bant||hollow|
|pen||top, head, end|
|plas||large house, mansion|
|pont / bont||bridge|
|rhiw||hill, slope, bank|
|y / yr / ’r||the|
|ystradau||high wide valleys|
* Traditionally the meaning of "Blaenau Ffestiniog" has been given as "heads of Ffestiniog". "Blaen" has various meanings, including "front/point/end/head" but can also mean "source", as in Blaenrhondda & Blaenrheidol. In its plural form, however, it is used to mean a "high inaccessible place", as also in Blaenau Gwent. (source: Geiriadur Gomer)
(feel free to add more, just the Welsh if preferred, and we'll translate it)