NGG16 Class Beyer-Garratts
The NGG16s are the largest and amongst the most powerful steam locomotives ever built for 2ft gauge and were originally designed for work in South Africa. The most extensive South African Railway 2ft lines were Port Shepstone-Harding (120km/75 miles), Umzinto-Donnybrook (150km/93 miles) and Port Elizabeth-Avontour (280km/174 miles). Not surprisingly the motive power requirements were exacting and locos developed accordingly, to a size exceeded nowhere in the world.
The WHR(C) is home to four members of this class, 87, 138, 140 and 143. The latter three arrived in Wales in 1997, and are all from the same batch built by Beyer Peacock in 1958. 87, from an earlier batch, followed in 2006.
The Class NGG16 2-6-2+2-6-2T Beyer Garratts were the final class of narrow gauge Garratts and were a direct descendant of the successful Class NGG13 Garratts (initially, the first NGG16 batch was classified NGG13). Three different builders constructed the Class NGG16 locomotives in five batches. John Cockerill built numbers 85 to 88 in Belgium in 1937. Beyer Peacock & Co built 109 to 116 in 1939, 125 to 131 in 1951, and 137 to 143 in 1958, in Manchester. The last batch, 149 to 156, were built in South Africa by Hunslet-Taylor at Germiston in 1967/68. Number 156 has the distinction of been the last steam locomotive built for the SAR.
Whereas some of the earlier, smaller South African Garratt classes have not survived (NGG12s 2-6-2+2-6-2Ts of 1927, and the solitary NGG14 all were scrapped in 1952), the NGG16 class survived intact. They were shared between Natal and the Port Elizabeth-Avontour line until the latter was dieselised in 1973, when they were withdrawn (but not scrapped) or moved to Natal. With the gradual closure of the Natal 2ft lines, ending with the 1986 closure of Port Shepstone-Harding, the story could well have ended for the class too. Luckily that section was taken over by the Alfred County Railway Co and the use of Garratts continued.
With the ACR being committed to steam, a sub-class was created in 1989, when No 141 was rebuilt with Gas Producer Combustion and other improvements. With No 155, rebuilt in 1990, it forms Class NGG16A.
The closure of some 2ft gauge lines in South Africa, together with the dieselisation of others, means that a considerable quantity of rolling stock and other material has come up for disposal there. The WHR(C) has taken full advantage of this situation.
<Where did 87, 138, 140, 143 spend their South African working lives? Not on the limestone traffic to Port Elizabeth - Alfred County Railway ?>
Length over couplers: 48 feet 5 inches
Wheel arrangement: 2-6-2 + 2-6-2T
Total wheelbase of loco: 43' 3"
Coupled wheelbase of each power unit: 6' 3"
Power unit wheelbase inc. trailing axles: 13' 10.5"
Driving wheel diameter: 2' 9"
Trailing wheel diameter: 1' 9"
Total heating surface: 1,049.1 square feet
Heating surface of tubes: 859 sq. ft.
Heating surface of firebox: 82.1 sq. ft.
Heating surface of superheater: 149 sq. ft.
Grate area: 19.5 sq. ft.
Boiler pressure: 180 pounds per sq. inch
Cylinders (x 4): 12" diameter, 16" stroke
Tractive effort @ 85% pressure: 21,553 lb.
Water capacity: 1,823 gallons
Weight in working order: 62 tons (approx.)
 Power comparisons
Before Garratts were introduced on the Port Elizabeth limestone trains in South Africa's Eastern Cape, the most powerful locos being used were Baldwin NG10 4-6-2s. These NG10s were permitted to haul a maximum of 150 tons up the winding 8 mile 1-in-40 bank from Loerie. In 1928 NGG13s were introduced and were permitted to haul 215 tons up the bank (the instructions in South African Railways 'Private Working Time Books' did not change for the NGG16s that were used later).
In their excellent booklet, 'Narrow Gauge Super Power - Limestone to Port Elizabeth', Leith Paxton and David Payling compare the limestone loads that the NGG16s hauled up the 8 mile 1-in-40 bank from Loerie with FR slate wagons and with current WHR(C) coaching stock. In South Africa the NGG16s would haul 8 loaded DZ wagons (8 DZ-9s or 10 DZ-6s) and a brake van up the steep winding bank. The equivalent loads would be 77 loaded FR iron slate wagons or 25 present day WHR(C) coaches (before modest reduction to allow for the extra number of axles).
While the NGG16s on WHR(C) could in theory haul these loads, this comparison does highlight their Achilles heel. The success of the design of the Garratts is the ability to create a powerful loco, with a big boiler and a relatively low axle weight, that can run on tightly curved lines. Ideal for South African narrow gauge applications, the Garratts were successful on dry rails, but they were not designed for the weather conditions of North Wales. So, in practice, the challenge in hauling 25 WHR(C) cars up the bank from Dinas would not be in producing the required power but in getting that power onto the rails without slipping. In poor conditions, the NGG16s are prone to slipping on the WHR(C) with the current loads of 6-7 cars.
Comparisons with other 2ft gauge gauge articulated and semi-articulated locomotives are interesting but can be deceptive. Tractive effort calculations do not assess the locomotive's ability to raise the steam necessary, while, as noted above, units designed for a lighter axle load may be light footed. In addition, another key factor in operating would be the range of speed available, which with a geared locomotive in particular can be rather restricted:
|Locomotive||Wheel Arrangement||Tractive effort (85% boiler pressure)1||Axle Weight|
|NGG16 Garratt||2-6-2 + 2-6-2T||21,364 lb.||6.2 tons|
|Tasmanian Hagans J1||2-6-4-0T||20,558 lb.||7.7 tons|
|Shay [http://www.shaylocomotives.com/data/lima2399/sn-1928.htm Class B}}||4w+4wTG||16,802 lb.||7 tons|
|Avonside Hunslet||0-4-0+0-4-0TG||12,375 lb.2||6.5 tons|
|Bagnall (eg Monarch)||0-4-4-0T||12,140 lb.||7.1 tons|
|Pioneer Garratt K1||0-4-0 + 0-4-0T||11,500 lb.3||8.4 tons|
|Double Fairlie (David Lloyd George)||0-4-4-0T||9,639 lb.||6.75 tons|
|Orenstein & Koppel Mallet Magnet Tramway Tasmania||0-4-4-0T||8,878 lb.||4.5 tons|
|Heeresfeldbahn Brigadelok||0-8-0T||6,528 lb.||3 tons|
|Single Fairlie (Taliesin)||0-4-4T||5,422 lb.||? tons|
|Pechot-Bourdon||0-4-4-0T||5,065 lb.||3.5 tons|
1. All these TEs are subject to review taking into account complex matters such as gearing, compounding and the accuracy and currency of quoted statistics
2. As quoted by manufacturer
3. The K1 TE Calculation is complicated by it being a compound locomotive. This TE is that calculated for it in compound mode with the transfer pipe at 52psi. A higher starting TE of around 17,000lb. can be achieved by use of a simpling valve that allows the HP cylinders to vent directly to the blast pipe and the LP receiver to be charged to 80psi from the boiler. The plumbing involved means that this is only useful to get a train moving from rest as the receiver will rapidly be discharged and no useful effort will be provided by the LP cylinders.
This external listing shows all the steam locomotives used on the South African and South-West African government 2ft gauge lines.
- Narrow Gauge Super Power - Limestone to Port Elizabeth, Leith Paxton and David Payling. The Narrow Gauge, Issue 192, Narrow Gauge Railway Society.
- WHR(C) official website,
- 2ft gauge Little Titans for the Welsh Highland - The 'NGG16s'
- BAGNALL ARTICULATED LOCOMOTIVES.
- Tasmania's Hagans - The North East Dundas Tramway Articulated 'J' class, Geoff Murdoch, published by the author (PO Box 127 Redbank Plaza 4301 Australia), 1988
- Loco Locomotives
- Industrial Railway Record 47, April 1973
- Shay Locomotives