- 1 Rail Gauge
- 2 Templates
- 3 Tunnels and Loading Gauge, etc.
- 4 Zig Zags and Incline Planes
- 5 Inclines
- 6 Incline planes and zig zags
- 7 Just in case you miss it…
- 8 QNNA
- 9 Trainload
- 10 Narrow Gauge Railways
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
- 14 Accident Record
- templates seem to be a little hard to find, so they are listed hear.
- Template:Rail weights (table)
- Template:Zig Zags and Incline Planes
- Moelwyn Tunnels Old & New
- Template:Quarries (table)
Tunnels and Loading Gauge, etc.
Comparison of Tunnels, etc.
|Old Moelwyn Tunnel
* Horse Power
+ Steam power
|1 in 80? x||730yd||Straight||1||3||8' 0"||9' 6"||Straight||roughly Semi-circle||Stone portals; unlined within||J. Spooner||Replaced 1836 inclines|
* No Problems
+ Nasty, confined, wet
|106||1977||New Moelwyn Tunnel||1 in 80? x||275yd||Straight||1||None||11'
|Straight||Low arc||Shot Concrete
the Three Miners
|Deviation avoids flooding||Comfortable|
|201||1851||Garnedd Tunnel||1 in 80; dips under portals||60yd||Slightly curved||1||No||8' 0"||ca.10'||roughly straight||Semi-circle, stone portals||Mostly unlined; brick piers in places||J. Spooner||Deviation of 1836 route|
|701||1836||FR Structure gauge||8' 0" various cuttings, now less; was ca.7' at Cemetery 1963||8' 6" (to 1956) but 9' 8"(since 1963) Rhiw Plas||Smallest bridge or tunnel||GS|
|705||1836||FR Loading gauge||6' 2" plus in-swing at carriage centres||9ft +/- 3ins||Largest rolling stock||GL|
- Notes: N/A = Not Available.
- x Notes: Ruling Grade about 1 in 80.
- + Notes: At ruling gradient.
- $ Notes: Structure gauge and loading gauge are not simple rectangles.
A rathole tunnel is so-called when a combination of factors make it difficult, unpleasant, and even dangerous to operate, including
- gradient too close to the ruling gradient.
- length longer than the "momentum distance".
- wet rails from steam and/or water seepage.
- unhelpful wind direction.
- train load too close to full load.
- loading gauge too close to the structure gauge.
- awkward stop at bottom of tunnel.
- insufficient time between trains for smoke to clear.
- single line rather than double line.
- lack of escape route for crew in case of stall.
- even great engineers made mistakes and rathole tunnels.
There is a standing instruction to enginemen on the FR that in the event of the engine coming to a stand in a tunnel, the train must run back by gravity outside the tunnel before any effort is made to blow up steam.
Zig Zags and Incline Planes
Incline Planes use ropes to lift load up and down steep gradients.
Zig Zags are paths in rising ground which are forced by difficult terrain to make 180 degree turns every so often.
With roads, the sharp turn may be achieved with so-called "hairpin turns".
With railways, the train has to reverse direction. Ideally there should be an even numbers of turns so that overall, the train continues in the same direction.
Zig zags are cheaper and quicker to build than alternative tunnels.
The length of the top and bottom roads where the train reverses limits the size of the train.
Inclines and zigzags are ways of dealing with steep terrain without resorting to major tunnels.
Zig zags for road probably are as old as roads and paths.
Zig zags for railways probably go back as far as there have been tramways and railways.
Early rail zig zags include:
- 187x - Lapstone Zig Zag, N S Wales - replaced by tunnel, then by deviation
- 1869 - Lithgow Zig Zag, N S Wales - replaced by 10 tunnels
|400||1833||1 in 11.23||IP Rail||Bryngwyn incline||NWNGR|
|402||1836||IP Rail||Old Moelwyn Tunnel temporary incline||IP=Incline Plane|
|101||1888||1 in 10||ZZ Foot||North Wales Narrow Gauge Railways||AS|
|208||2013||1 in 40||ZZ Rail||Plas Halt||GH|
|144||1066||1 in 08||ZZ Foot||Beddgelert Station||FRR|
|201||1887||1 in 12||ZZ Foot||Walks around the Railway||AA|
|301||186_||1 in 33||ZZ Rail||Lapstone Zig Zag||ZZ=Zig Zag|
|202||1869||1 in 33||08||ZZ Rail||Lithgow Zig Zag||NSW |
were planned. The first were in 1885 when an extension to Caernarfon and a zig-zag line to replace the Bryngwyn incline were proposed. Neither was built but 3 KB (409 words) - 02:16, 15 August 2015
a distance of 6 miles 19chains (10km) from Porthmadog. It is located at Zig-zag Crossing immediately to the north of Tyler's Curve above Plas Tan y Bwlch 3 KB (490 words) - 02:14, 15 August 2015
Goat Hotel. Between the car park and the station there is a long tarmac ‘zig-zag’ sloping path which is relatively steep but usable by wheelchairs. The slope 20 KB (3,157 words) - 02:17, 15 August 2015
Glan-yr-Afon. In 800m once past Plas Glan-yr-Afon and Ty-gwyn, turn left onto a zig-zag path towards Bontnewydd. On entering the village (Dol Pandy farm) turn left 32 KB (5,059 words) - 02:20, 15 August 2015
Inclines worked by ropes are another way of avoiding tunnels, until traffic increases so much as to make that tunnel inconvenient.
Incline planes and zig zags
Just in case you miss it…
… I've written on your Talk page about switchbacks, inclines and categories. (I won't mind if you delete this notice when you've seen it; a user's talk page is the usual place to address him or her.) --IP (talk) 15:04, 15 August 2015 (UTC)
An abbreviation for
- "Questions Now Needing Answers", or
- "Quibbles Now Needing Alterations",
- might be
- QNNA - few false search matches in either Wikipedia or Festipedia
- QNNA - a link
- [[[QNNA]]] - a link with visible square brackets, except that it doesn't work
- (QNNA) has a converse meaning compared to (sic).
- FarleyBrook (talk) 04:34, 18 August 2015 (UTC)
Narrow Gauge Railways
- FR Co. at Minffordd (1ft 1¼in gauge)
- Corris Railway at Machynlleth (2ft 3in gauge)
- Talyllyn Railway at Tywyn (2ft 3in gauge)
- Plynlimon and Hafan Tramway at Llanfihangel (later Llandre) (2ft 3in gauge)
- Kerry Tramway at Kerry, Powys (2ft 0in gauge)
- Vale of Rheidol Railway* at Aberystwyth (1 ft 11¾ in gauge)
- Welshpool & Llanfair Light Railway* at Welshpool (2ft 6in gauge)
See: Feeder lines
- "THE FAIRLIE ENGINES AND STEAM CARRIAGES". Hamilton Spectator and Grange District Advertiser (South Melbourne, Vic. : 1860 - 1870). South Melbourne, Vic.: National Library of Australia. 4 December 1869. p. 1 Supplement: SUPPLEMENT TO THE HAMILTON SPECTATOR. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
- (Template) 
- "WELSH SPEAKING RAILWAY SERVANTS". Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners' Advocate (NSW : 1876 - 1954) . NSW: National Library of Australia. 12 January 1895. p. 9. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- "FESTINIOG - The Aberystwith Observer". David Jenkins. 1879-04-26. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
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